Testes descend to the scrotum normally before birth. When they fail to do so, the boy is cryptorchid and has an increased risk for testicular germ cell cancer and subfertility later in life. Early correction of maldescent by orchiopexy operation improves the spermatogenetic capacity of the testis but does not return the testicular cancer risk to the control level. Testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3. Cryptorchidism can therefore be considered a symptom of impaired testicular function that may also be linked to other testicular diseases, such as germ cell cancer and subfertility. Early orchiopexy can alleviate the effects of cryptorchidism on spermatogenesis, but alertness for testicular cancer should be maintained. In searching the genetic and environmental reasons for these diseases, it is useful to consider their connection with each other.