Clomid (clomiphene citrate):
Most commonly prescribed for women to induce ovulation, this drug binds to estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. By doing this, it blocks estrogen and increases the production of GnRH which in turn increases LH and FSH levels. LH and FSH cause cells in the testicle to generate more testosterone which can improve sperm production.
Originally developed to treat breast cancer, this drug binds to the enzyme aromatase which converts testosterone into estrogen. Physicians have found it to be effective in improving fertility in men with hormone imbalances by improving the ratio of testosterone to estrogen.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG):
hCG behaves much like LH, stimulating the Leydig cells of the testes to produce testosterone. This injectable medication is commonly recommended for patients with deficiencies in LH but sufficient FSH.
In circumstances where the patient is deficient in both LH and FSH, they might be prescribed a combination of hCG and FSH. Gonal-f is a highly pure, recombinant form of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) that is commonly used during IVF to stimulate ovulation in women. In men with hormone imbalances, Gonal-f can both increase testosterone and stimulate sperm production.
Menopur (also called Pergonal and Repronix) is a combination of LH and FSH. Like Gonal-f it is commonly used during IVF cycles to stimulate maturation of eggs. In men, this medication can be used to restore hormone imbalances, increase natural testosterone production and boost sperm counts.